Even if the present extraction of titanium by the Kroll Process is relatively energy intensive as compared to other manufacturing metals, the energy and waste savings achieved by the use of titanium represent a payback not available from less corrosion resistant, heavier, less strong and environmentally less friendly materials. The development of reduced energy extraction processes continues, most notably with the FFC electrolytic de oxidation process, which not only consumes less energy, but is also a more environmentally friendly process overall.
Hot working of titanium metal from ingot or billet follows similar procedures to other metals, but at typically lower temperatures than for example steels or nickel based alloys. Energy consumption per weight of material processed is overall of the same order as for steel, but because of its lower density the volume of titanium product yielded is typically 30-40% greater.
Titanium scrap generated in manufacturing processes and in equipment fabrication is fully recyclable. Substantial investment by titanium producers in cold hearth and other remelting furnaces has greatly improved the economy of recycling and made possible the direct use of the widest possible range of scrap forms. The sustained value of life expired titanium parts and systems should always be taken into account in life cycle cost considerations. The probability that titanium process plant and other equipment will remain both clean and free of corrosion means that re-use of the whole plant or of elements of the plant, e.g. condenser tubing, may be considered, and offer further economies in major equipment production and procurement cycles.